orthodromic studies

The orthodromic is the propagation of a nerve impulse in the same direction as a physiological conduction. The orthodromic nerve conduction studies are performed using a stimulus directed in the way the nerve normally depolarizes, for example, applying distal stimulation to the sensory fibers and recording responses more proximally. The stimulation can be applied at several sites such as the digit, palm, wrist or more proximally at the elbow and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) can be recorded proximally on the palm, wrist, elbow or even at the axilla. The orthodromic studies were introduced since 1950s and mostly used until the first half of the 1970s but, in clinical practice, the sensory antidromic nerve conduction studies have been gradually the preferred methods because of higher SNAPs amplitude than orthodromic sensory nerve conduction studies.

S2 (Gilliatt and Sears, 1958)  BUY CHAPTER
S3 (Mayer, 1963)  BUY CHAPTER
S4 (Melvin et al., 1966)  BUY CHAPTER
S6 (Wiederholt, 1970) BUY CHAPTER
S7 (Loong and Seah, 1971)  BUY CHAPTER
S8 (Buchthal and Rosenfalck, 1971)  BUY CHAPTER
S9 (Casey and Le Quesne, 1972) BUY CHAPTER
S10 (Buchthal et al., 1974)  BUY CHAPTER
S11 (Eklund, 1975)  BUY CHAPTER
S22 (Smith, 1981)  BUY CHAPTER
S24 (Mills, 1985)  BUY CHAPTER
S25 (Monga et al., 1985)  BUY CHAPTER
S26 - Di Benedetto et al., 1986
S26 (Di Benedetto et al., 1986) BUY CHAPTER
S29
S29 (Carroll, 1987) BUY CHAPTER
S31
S31 (Chassin et al., 1987) BUY CHAPTER
S32
S32 (Joynt, 1989) BUY CHAPTER
S33
S33 (Uncini et al., 1989) BUY CHAPTER
S35
S35 (Macdonell et al., 1990) BUY CHAPTER
S36
S36 (Chang and Lien, 1991) BUY CHAPTER
S37
S37 (Lauritzen et al., 1991) BUY CHAPTER
S40
S40 (Padua et al., 1996) BUY CHAPTER
S41
S41 (Seror, 1996) BUY CHAPTER
S43
S43 (Seror, 1998) BUY CHAPTER
S44
S44 (Robinson et al., 1998) BUY CHAPTER
S46
S46 (Seror, 2000) BUY CHAPTER
S47
S47 (Seror, 2001) BUY CHAPTER
S48
S48 (Chang et al., 2002) BUY CHAPTER
S49
S49 (Imai et al., 2004) BUY CHAPTER
S50
S50 (Pyun et al., 2005) BUY CHAPTER
S54
S54 (Chang et al., 2008) BUY CHAPTER